- the General Consumer and User Protection Act;
- the General Contractual Conditions Act; and
- the Unfair Competition Act.
As in any member state, collective actions are shaped in Spain by European consumer protection law. In fact, on 20 December 2020, Directive (EU) 2020/1828 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 25 November 2020 (Directive 2020/1828) – on representative actions for the protection of the collective interests of consumers and repealing Directive 2009/22/EC – entered into force. Spain has not yet transposed the directive (the deadline to do so is 25 December 2022). When it is transposed, the directive’s content may affect the current regulation on collective actions.